Perte de poids : on change de logique ?! (régime, amincissement, masse grasse...).
Les femmes post-ménopausées constituent un sous-groupe important de la population puisque le risque de complications cardiométaboliques augmente après la ménopause. Cependant, la relation entre la dépense énergétique et le RCM chez rcm perte de poids individus sédentaires a été moins investiguée.
Ces relations pourraient être médiées par un stress réducteur. The cardiometabolic risk represents all risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, including the traditional and the emerging risk factors.
Accumulating evidences indicate that insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress are key players in the cardiometabolic risk, although the main cause initiating the metabolic alterations associated with the cardiometabolic risk has to be identified. Postmenopausal women are an important sub-group of the general population because the risk of developing cardiometabolic complications increases after menopause.
The cardiometabolic risk factors can be modulated by dietary intake, physical activity and weight loss. Despite the fact that the study of specific nutrients or foods provided a better understanding of the implication of nutrition in the cardiometabolic risk, the relationship between diet quality and cardiometabolic risk has been less studied.
Beneficial effects of physical activity on the cardiometabolic risk have been demonstrated in physically active individuals. However, the relationship between energy expenditure and the cardiometabolic risk in sedentary individuals has been less investigated. Similarly, it is unknown whether dietary intake interacts with physical activity in order to have greater beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this thesis is to determine the relationships between diet quality, physical activity and oxidative stress on the cardiometabolic risk in sedentary postmenopausal overweight and obese women without cardiometabolic complications.
The results showed that, in these sedentary women, physical activity energy expenditure is associated with reduced inflammation, independently of adiposity.
Moreover, there is a synergistic relationship between quality and physical activity energy expenditure PAEE which is associated with a reduced cardiometabolic risk compared to their separate effects. Indeed, high diet quality combined to high PAEE levels is associated with a better lipid and lipoprotein profile and a lower inflammatory status, independently of adiposity.
However, in a pilot study, only independent effects of changes in diet quality and PAEE on the changes in cardiometabolic risk factors was observed following a 6-month hypocaloric diet. Indeed, beyond the reduction of adiposity and improvement of the lipoprotein profile induced by this diet, improved diet quality and increased PAEE are associated with beneficial changes in blood pressure and lipid profile.
On the other hand, modification in the glutathione system, which is one of the most common antioxidant systems in the rcm perte de poids, is associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk.
Greater glutathione peroxidase activity is associated with insulin resistance and greater intima-media thickness of blood vessels. These relationships may be mediated through a reductive stress. In conclusion, a healthy diet and physical activity should be emphasized in interventions aimed to reduce obesity and its related complications, even in absence of change in adiposity.
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Moreover, glutathione peroxidase activity may be a parameter contributing to the development of sub-clinical but clinically relevant asymptomatic cardiometabolic abnormalities in obese women.
Further investigations are needed to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
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